In peer-reviewed journals

40.“Ethno-regional favouritism and the political economy of school test scores, Journal of Development Economics, July 2023, single authored

39.“Fighting Covid-19 amidst civil conflict: micro-level evidence from Burkina Faso”, World Development, with Mohammad Sepahvand, 2023

38.“ Pro-social behavior after a disaster: Evidence from a storm hitting an open-air festival”, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organisation, with Pierre-Guillaume Méon, Volume 198, June 2022

37.“Violence Exposure and poverty: Evidence from the Burundi Civil War, Journal of Comparative Economics, with Marion Mercier and Lionel Ngenzebuke, May 2020

36.“Forced Displacement, Migration and Fertility: evidence from Burundi, 2019, Population and Development Review, with Davide Osti and Gudrun Ostby”

35.“Unruly Entrepreneurs: Investigating Value Creation by Microfinance Clients in Rural Burundi, 2019,  Oxford Development Studies, with Katarzyna Cieslik and Marek Hudon, available online since April 2019                 

34.“The micro-economics of violent conflict”, introduction to the special issue on violent conflict, Journal of Development Economics ,with Patricia Justino and Tilman Brück, 2018

33.“The Power of the Family: Kinship and Intra-Household Decision Making in Burundi”, 2018, Review of the Economics of the Household, June,  Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 323–346, with Lionel Ngenzebuke and Bram De Rock

32.“Are we counting all the poor? Accounting for the intra-household allocation of consumption in Burundi, 2017, Journal of Demographic Economics, volume 83, issue 3, September, pp. 307-327, with Marion Mercier

31.“Returning Home after Civil War: Food security and nutrition among Burundian households”, 2017, Journal of Development Studies, with Juan-Carlos Munoz-Mora, available online with the journal

30.” Who benefits from the Peace? Demobilisation and Reintegration in Burundi”, 2016, World Bank Economic Review, July, with Olivia D’Aoust and Olivier Sterck

29.“Foreign Fighters in Syria and Iraq and the Socio-economic environment they faced at home: a comparison of European Countries”, 2016, Perspectives on Terrorism, December Issue, single authored

28.“Exploring Psychological Distress in Burundi during and after the Armed Conflict”, 2016, Community Mental Health Journal , Volume 52, Issue 1, pp 32–38, with Familiar, I., B.Hall, T.Bundervoet, and J.Bass

27.“Measuring Violent Conflict in Micro-Level Surveys: Current Practices and Methodological Challenges”, 2015, World Bank Research Observer, 31(1),   pp.29-58 ,with Tilman Brück, Patricia Justino, Alexandra Advenko and Andrew Tedesco

26.“Extortion with Protection: Understanding the effect of rebel taxation on civilian welfare in Burundi”, 2014, Journal of Conflict Resolution, December, vol. 58  no. 8  1474-1499 ,with Rachel Sabates-Wheeler

25.“Winners and Losers among a Refugee-Hosting Population”, 2014, Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol.62, n4, pp.769-809 ,with Jean-Francois Maystadt

24.“Schooling, Violent Conflict and Gender in Burundi”, 2014, World Bank Economic Review, vol.28, n2, pp.384-411, with Jan Van Bavel

23.“Violent Conflict and Gender Inequality: an Overview”, 2013, World Bank Research Observer, February, 28(1): 110-138, with Mayra Buvinic, Monica Das Gupta and Ursula Casaronne

22.“Poverty Dynamics, Violent Conflict and Convergence in Rwanda”, 2013. Review of Income and Wealth, Series 59, nr.1, March, pp.66-90, with Patricia Justino

21.“Business under Fire: Entrepreneurship and Violent Conflict in Developing Countries”, 2013 Journal of Conflict Resolution February, 57: 3-19, with Tilman Brück and Wim Naudé

20.“Violent Conflict and Behavior ? Evidence from field experiments in Burundi”,  American Economic Review, 2012, April, Vol. 102, No. 2 pp. 941-64, with Maarten Voors, Eleonora Nillesen, Erwin Bulte, Robert  Lensink and Daan Van Soest

19.“Undernutrition, subsequent risk of Mortality and Civil War in Burundi”, 2012, Economics and Human Biology, Vol. 10, Issue 3, pp. 221-231, single authored

18.“Dictatorship in a single export crop economy”, 2012, Journal of Theoretical Politics, April, 24, pp.210-234, with Bart Capéau

17.“The 1990-92 Massacres in Rwanda: a case of spatial and social engineering?”, 2011, Journal of Agrarian Change, Vol.11 , n.3, July, pp.396-419, single authored

16.“Crop Failure, Civil War and Child Stunting in Rwanda”, 2011, Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol.59, n.4, July, pp.777-810, with Richard Akresh and Tom Bundervoet

15.“Demographic and Socio-Economic Distribution of Excess Mortality in the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda”, 2010, Journal of African Economies, 19(2), p.141-162 ,with Damien de Walque

14.“Health and Civil War in Burundi”, Journal of Human Resources, 2009, vol.44, n.2, Spring, pp.536-563, with Tom Bundervoet and Rich Akresh

13.“Firearms and Machetes: the Organisation of Massacres in Rwanda”, Journal of Peace Research, vol 43, no 1, January 2006, pp.5-22, single authored

12.“Fertility and Child Survival among Rwandan Refugees”, European Journal of Population, Special Issue of the Demography of violent conflict, 21, 2005, pp.271-290  This paper is also published in Demography of Armed Conflict, edited by H. Hegre, E. Tabeau and H. Urdal, Kluwer Academic Press, 2007, with Jan Van Bavel

11.“An economic profile of peasant perpetrators of genocide”, Journal of Development Economics 77 (2005):297-323, single authored

10.“Death and Survival during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda”, Population Studies, 2004, vol 58, n2, pp.233-245, single authored

9.“What are all the soldiers going to do? Demobilisation, re-integration and employment in Rwanda”, Conflict, Security and Development,4: 1 April  2004, pp.39-57, with Marijke Verpoorten

8.“Games in Multiple Arenas and Institutional Design on the eve of the Rwandan genocide”, Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy, web based journal published with the Berkeley Electronic Press,,Winter 2004, single authored

7.“Testing the double genocide thesis for central and southern Rwanda”, Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol 47, no 4, August 2003, pp.423-442, single authored

6.“The political economy of coffee, dictatorship and genocide”, European Journal of Political Economy, vol.19 (2003) p.161-181, June 2003, single authored

5.“Bauernideologie und Völkermord in Rwanda”, Zeitschrift für Genozidforschung, vol 3, 1-2, 2001, p.47-80, single authored

4.“Belgian Law, the Rwandan Genocide and the Search for an Ethical Foreign Policy”, Global Jurist, Vol 1, no.3, Article 2, Berkeley Electronic Press (2001),, with Martine Schotsmans

3.“Development Ideology, the Peasantry and Genocide :  Rwanda under Habyarimana’s rule (1973-1994)”, Journal for Genocide Research, vol 2, no 3, p.325-361, November 2000, single authored

2.“The Quality of Education at the Institutional and the Individual level : a case study in rural Ethiopia”, International Review of Education, 1999, vol.45(2), p.167-196, single authored

1.“Estimating Returns to Off-farm activities in Rural Ethiopia”, Ethiopian Journal of Economics, vol V., num.2, October 1996, p.27-54, single authored


Guest Editor of Journal Special Issues

8.“Forced Displacement and Social Cohesion”, Journal of Conflict Resolution, with Sarah Langlozt, Patricia Justino and Tilman               Brück, forthcoming 2024

7.“The Microeconomics of Violent Conflict”, Journal of Development Economics ,with Patricia Justino and Tilman Brück, volume           141, November 2019

6.”Symposium of Conflict and Gender”, World Bank Economic Review, Volume 28, Issue 2, 2014

5.“Violent Conflict and Entrepreneurship”, 2013,  Journal of Conflict Resolution, February, 57(1), with Wim Naudé and Tilman Brück

4.“Small Business, Entrepreneurship and Conflict in Developing Countries”, 2011, Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship,         vol.24, n.2 ,with Wim Naudé and Tilman Brück

3.“The Economics of Conflict: Micro-Level Evidence”, 2009, Journal of the Economics of Peace and Security, January

2.“The Micro-Level Dynamics of Violent Conflict”, 2009, Journal of Peace Research, May, with Tilman Bruck and Patricia Justino

1.“Does Globalisation benefit the poor?”, 2003, Tijdschrift voor Economie and Management, Vol. XLVIII, 4 ,with Johan Swinnen


Books as author or editor

1.“Peasants in Power, a political economy of development and genocide in Rwanda”, 2013, Springer Verlag, May, 276p.

2.“A Micro-Level Perspective on Violent Conflict”, volume co-edited with Patricia Justino and Tilman Brück, Oxford University                Press, November  2013

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